Diseases

Coccidiosis in Cattle

Filed Under: Cows, Diseases, Parasites

Coccidiosis in cattle is caused by the protozoan parasites Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, and Eimeria auburnensis. Coccidia are intracellular parasites of many organs and tissues in cattle.

Toxoplasma

Filed Under: Cats, Diseases, Parasites

Toxoplasmosis is caused by an organism called Toxoplasma gondii which is a type of protozoan. This particular protozoan is an intracellular parasite of many organs and tissues of birds and mammals, including man. The only known definitive or complete hosts are wild and domestic Felidae or cats. This means that only in infected cats will the entire life cycle of this parasite be completed. The cat is the only animal which will shed and thereby spread oocysts (eggs) in their feces.

Infection can be obtained in one of three ways:

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus or FIV

Filed Under: Cats, Diseases

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus or FIV is a lentivirus that infects domestic cats and cheetahs. FIV is the cause of feline AIDS but is not the same virus as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the cause of human AIDS.

The prevalence of FIV in domestic cats in North America is estimated to be at a 6% level regardless of whether the cat is owned or feral.

Approximately 15% of cats that test positive for Feline Leukemia (FeLV) also test positive for FIV.

Tetanus in Horses

Filed Under: Horses, Diseases

Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin produced by club-shaped bacteria, known as Clostridium tetani. In the presence of oxygen or other adverse environmental conditions such as cold or a lack of humidity, this bacterium will produce a single inactive spore. The spore is a defense mechanism by which the bacteria are able to survive conditions that would result in their death.

West Nile Encephalomyelitis in the Horse

Filed Under: Horses, Diseases, Parasites

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that was first identified in Africa during 1937. WNV is considered to be endemic in Africa, Asia, Southern Europe and North America. The virus first appeared in North America around the New York City area in 1999, when wild and zoo birds, horses and humans died of meningoencephalitis. WNV has been found in 225 different wild and captive bird species. Birds are the natural host and reservoir of this virus.

Rabies in Horses

Filed Under: Horses, Diseases

Rabies is a virus that may infect the central nervous system of any warm blooded animal. Rabies is typically spread by the saliva from infected animals. Horses are most likely to contract rabies by the bite of a wild carnivore, bats, or unvaccinated cats. Rabies is essentially 100% fatal once clinical signs attributed to the disease are exhibited.

In the year 2001 there were nearly 7,500 cases of rabies that were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US. Of those cases, 51 were members of the Equine Family.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)

Filed Under: Horses, Diseases

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) or Swamp Fever is caused by a lentivirus of the family Retroviridae. This virus is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking insects, especially horseflies and deerflies. Transmission may also occur via contaminated syringes, surgical instruments or blood transfusions. Vertical transmission (transmission from mother to offspring) may occur transplacentally or via colostrum and nursing. The only known reservoirs of infection are members of the Equine Family. Virus replication does not occur in the insect vector.

Oral Melanoma: Extended Survival Times

Filed Under: Dogs, Diseases

Oral melanoma—a tumor found in the mouth of your dog—tends to be aggressive. These types of tumors are frequently malignant, and will spread throughout the body often before they are diagnosed. Luckily, routine yearly physical examinations can yield an early diagnosis.

Rabbit Snuffles

Filed Under: Pocket Pets, Diseases, Rabbits

Commonly known as "snuffles," nasal catarrh, or pasteurellosis, is a highly contagious bacterial infection affecting rabbits. Snuffles produces a discharge from the nose and eyes.

Heartworm Preventatives for Dogs

Filed Under: Dogs, Diseases

Currently all heartworm products for dogs are given on a monthly basis. These should only be given to dogs who have been tested for heartworms and found to be free of disease. The cost of testing is nominal and only requires taking a blood sample. Most veterinary clinics will conduct the test in a hospital laboratory and have the results 8 to 10 minutes later.

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