Think your dog may have a bad case of Infectious Tracheobronchitis? You may not be dealing with a run-of-the-mill kennel cough. Canine Influenza 1 virus, or CIV, has become an important emerging infectious disease in dogs. The virus responsible for the condition is H3N8 influenza A virus.
Did you know that “Bovine Viral Diarrhea” is actually an all-inclusive term for a clinical disease manifestation that potentially involves one or two distinct viruses? Two distinct biotypes of the virus, two viral states of infection and five distinct clinical forms of acute disease are seen with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). This complex is also known as “Bovine Virus Diarrhea”, “Mucosal Disease”, or “Bovine Pestivirus Disease Complex”.
The weather is so beautiful that you decide to take a hike along a stream or small river and you come across a deceased white-tailed deer in or around the water. Unfortunately, it is not an uncommon scenario. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease or EHD is a viral disease of white-tailed and mule deer that is spread by biting gnats. Domestic ruminants such as cattle and sheep are typically asymptomatic carriers of the virus but occasionally cattle will exhibit clinical disease.
Are you currently breeding horses? Are you vaccinating your horses for Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)? A 2005 study found that a mere 11.7% of breeding operations are vaccinating for this highly contagious, reportable, viral disease that causes sporadic outbreaks of respiratory infection and abortion in horses.
Proventricular Dilatation Disease, or PDD, is a disorder of the central nervous system and a fatal viral disease that currently affects 50 different species of domesticated and wild psittacine parrots as well as 5 other Orders of birds. PDD was previously known as “macaw wasting syndrome” when it was mistakenly thought to infect only macaws. The Spix’s macaw, whose current population is estimated at 100 live birds, is currently one of the most endangered species of birds in the world, with its very existence being threatened by PDD.
Feline Leukemia is a retrovirus. As a member of the retrovirus family, the feline leukemia virus’s genetic material is transmitted as RNA. Once the virus infects the cell, DNA copies of the virus are transcribed and these copies are inserted randomly into the host’s genetic material. Once the DNA is integrated within the genome, any cell division that occurs will cause both of the new cells to contain the virus.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly infections viral disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, buffalo, deer, antelope, elephant and giraffe. Old world camels are resistant to natural infection while new world camelids such as alpacas and llamas are susceptible to infection. Other animals that may become infected include nutrias, capybaras, hedgehogs, rats, mice and armadillos.
Feline Calicivirus (FCV) is an important and common cause of Upper Respiratory Infection (URD) and oral disease in cats. This virus occurs worldwide with various strains that vary greatly in virulence (the ability to produce disease). Clinical disease may vary from subclinical (not clinically apparent) to combinations of oral, respiratory disease, and lameness. There are more than 40 strains of FCV, one of which may have high mortality rates and is referred to as the virulent systemic (VS), or the hemorrhagic form of FCV.
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) or Swamp Fever is caused by a lentivirus of the family Retroviridae. This virus is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking insects, especially horseflies and deerflies. Transmission may also occur via contaminated syringes, surgical instruments or blood transfusions. Vertical transmission (transmission from mother to offspring) may occur transplacentally or via colostrum and nursing. The only known reservoirs of infection are members of the Equine Family. Virus replication does not occur in the insect vector.